Textile basic knowledges

Introduction to the Basic Knowledge of Textile


1. Commonly used calculation formulas for textiles are divided into fixed-length calculation formulas and fixed-weight calculation formulas.


Fixed-length calculation formula:


(1), denier (D): D = g / L * 9000 where g is the weight of the thread (g) and L is the length of the thread (m)


(2), tex (number) [tex (H)]: tex = g / L * 1000 where g is the weight (g) of the yarn (or silk) and L is the length (m) of the yarn (or silk) )


(3), sub-tex (dtex): dtex = g / L * 9000 where g is the weight of the thread (g) and L is the length of the thread (m)


Fixed weight calculation formula:


(1), metric count (N): N = L / G where G is the weight (g) of yarn (or silk) and L is the length (m) of yarn (or silk)


(2), inch count (S): S = L / (G * 840) where G is the weight of the thread (lb), L is the length of the thread (yard)


2. Choose the conversion formula:


(1), conversion formula of metric count (N) and denier (D): D = 9000 / N


(2), the conversion formula of inch count (S) and denier (D): D = 5315 / S


(3), the conversion formula of sub-tex (dtex) and tex (tex): 1tex = 10dtex


(4), tex (tex) and denier (D) conversion formula: tex = D / 9


(5), the conversion formula of tex (tex) and inch count (S): tex = K / SK value: pure cotton yarn K = 583.1 purified fiber K = 590.5 polyester cotton yarn K = 587.6 cotton viscose yarn (75: 25) K = 584.8 dimension cotton yarn (50:50) K = 587.0


(6), tex (tex) and metric number (N) conversion formula: tex = 1000 / N


(7), the conversion formula of dtex (dtex) and denier (D): dtex = 10D / 9


(8), the conversion formula of dtex and inch count (S): dtex = 10K / SK value: pure cotton yarn K = 583.1 purified fiber K = 590.5 polyester cotton yarn K = 587.6 cotton viscose yarn (75 : 25) K = 584.8 cotton yarn (50:50) K = 587.0


(9), conversion formula of dtex (dtex) and metric count (N): dtex = 10000 / N


(10), the conversion formula of metric centimeters (cm) and inch inches (inch): 1inch = 2.54cm


(11), the conversion formula of metric rice (M) and English yard (yd): 1 yard = 0.9144 meters


(12), the conversion formula of satin square meter weight (g / m2) and mm (m / m): 1m / m = 4.3056g / m2


(13), the conversion formula of actual weight of silk and pound weight: pound weight (lb) = silk weight per meter (g / m) * 0.9144 (m / yd) * 50 (yd) /453.6 (g / yd)

1. Feel visual method: This method is suitable for textile raw materials in loose fiber state.


(1), cotton fiber is shorter and thinner than ramie fiber and other hemp craft fiber and wool fiber, often with various impurities and defects.


(2), hemp fiber feels rough and hard.


(3), the wool fiber is curled and full of elasticity.


(4). Silk is long filament, long and slender, with special luster.


(5) Among chemical fibers, only the viscose fiber has a large difference in dry and wet strength.


(6), spandex yarn has a very large elasticity, its length can be stretched to more than five times at room temperature.


2. Microscopic observation method: It is to identify the fiber according to the longitudinal and cross-sectional morphological characteristics of the fiber.


(1), cotton fiber: cross-sectional shape: round waist, with a middle waist; longitudinal shape: flat ribbon, with natural twist.


(2), hemp (ramie, flax, jute) fiber: cross-sectional morphology: waist-round or polygonal, with a cavity; longitudinal morphology: with horizontal joints, vertical stripes.


(3), wool fiber: cross-sectional morphology: round or nearly round, some with pith; longitudinal morphology: scales on the surface.


(4), rabbit hair fiber: cross-sectional morphology: dumbbell-shaped, with hair pulp; longitudinal morphology: scaly surface.


(5). Mulberry silk fiber: cross-sectional morphology: irregular triangle; vertical morphology: smooth and straight, with stripes in the longitudinal direction.


(6), ordinary viscose: cross-sectional shape: zigzag, sheath-core structure; longitudinal shape: longitudinal grooves.


(7). Rich-strength fiber: cross-sectional morphology: less tooth shape, or round, oval; longitudinal morphology: smooth surface.


(8), acetate fiber: cross-sectional morphology: trilobal or irregular zigzag; longitudinal morphology: longitudinal stripes on the surface.


(9), acrylic fiber: cross-sectional shape: round, dumbbell-shaped or leaf-shaped; longitudinal shape: smooth or striped surface.


(10), Chlorine fiber: cross-sectional shape: nearly circular; vertical shape: smooth surface


(11), spandex fiber: cross-sectional morphology: irregular shape, round, potato-shaped; longitudinal morphology: dark and deep surface, with unclear bone-shaped stripes.


(12), polyester, nylon, polypropylene fiber: cross-sectional shape: round or shaped; longitudinal shape: smooth.


(13), vinylon fiber: cross-sectional shape: waist-round, leather-core structure; longitudinal shape: 1 to 2 grooves.